Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (1)

Terry Crews details alleged sexual assault by ‘high level’ Hollywood exec

“This whole thing with Harvey Weinstein is giving me PTSD. Why? Because this kind of thing happened to ME…” Crews tweeted Tuesday.

This claim helps to link the celebrity status of Hollywood victims like Robin Williams to the suicide rate in veterans who have returned from military service overseas with viruses. The viruses clearly link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to PTSD and depression.

See: “Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of differential susceptibility to traumatic stress.” The presentation was reported during 2017 Suicide Prevention Month on September 4, 2017 as: Alterations in blood-based miRNA in veterans affected with combat-related PTSD

See also: Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Differential Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress in Biological Psychiatry

The link from the energy-dependent human-specific COMT Val158Met substitution to the energy-dependent BDNF Val66Met substitution may be important to those who know nothing about stress-linked suicide or what has been learned about suicide prevention during the past 53 years.

For instance, in Predicting who wins the 2017 Nobel Prizes I wrote:

Bruce McEwen wins the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize

Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Life is food energy-dependent, ATP-dependent, and RNA-mediated. McEwen’s life’s works helped to establish that fact in the context of how the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to death. Simply put, what organisms eat links their physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to the energy-dependent survival of the species. That is what Darwin asserted in his claims about the “conditions of life.” He did not know that the epigenetic effects on his “conditions of life” would be placed into the context of neo-Darwinian evolution because he knew nothing about genes. Still, he knew that all organisms must eat and that the physiology of reproduction would be linked to all morphological and behavioral diversity by serious scientists. In fact, he repeatedly asserted the fact that natural selection must come before his ideas about evolution.

Since then, something has gone horribly wrong. See: The extent of codon usage bias in human RNA viruses and its evolutionary origin

This suggests that translational selection may also have some influence in shaping codon usage bias.

That suggestion is not even a possibility in the context of Darwin’s claims.

See for comparison: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

They accurately represent the claims of all serious scientists in the context of the amino acid optimality code (See: Fig 6). The alternative perspective on energy-dependent sequence changes between paralogs in evolution eliminates the claims about evolved viruses and links all viruses to human disease. The alternative perspective of biologically uninformed theorists has been eliminated by all serious scientists since 1964. Bruce McEwen’s life’s works were recently extended to the claims in:

A sexually dimorphic pre-stressed translational signature in CA3 pyramidal neurons of BDNF Val66Met mice (2017)

..in a brain region not normally associated with sex differences, this work sheds light on ways that genes, environment and sex interact to affect the transcriptome’s response to a stressor.

For the important claims about the difference between effect and affect, see: Correction for McEwen, Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin

The authors note that on page 17184, right column, first paragraph, line 4, “effect” should instead appear as “affect.”

Nutrient stress and social stress link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from epigenetic effects on genes to the hormones that affect behavior, which have repeatedly been linked to sex differences in pathology.

See: Stress has dramatically different effects on male and female mouse brains

Excerpt: “Stress-induced diseases

McEwen’s group also experimented with mice engineered to carry a variant of the BDNF gene that, in humans, is known to increase the risk of developing stress-induced neuropsychiatric disorders.”

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links the variant of the BDNF gene to the increased risk of developing stress-induced neuropsychiatric disorders.

Why don’t others use that fact to refute the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinan theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists?  In the early 1990s, McEwen taught me to link top-down causation and and energy-dependent effects on gene activation from sex differences in effects on hormones to affects of hormones on behavior. If he had not told me how to validate my model, I would never have learned how to link a single energy-dependent base pair change to fixation of an amino acid substitution in the mouse (BDNF Val66Met) to COMT Val158Met in the context of an energy-dependent model of human behavioral development.

I may never have become interested in the differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that link the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to behavior in species from microbes to humans.

Instead, see how energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance are linked to gene expression and behavior from: microRNAs to BDNF Val66Met 

The BDNF Val66Met variant affects gene expression through miR-146b.

Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is regulated by microRNAs miR-26a and miR-26b allele-specific binding.

See also: A COMT gene haplotype associated with methamphetamine abuse

rs165599 is a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the COMT 3′ untranslated region (UTR), a noncoding transcript region subject to posttranscriptional down-regulation by mechanisms such as microRNA binding.

See also: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

Reported as: Genes exhibit different behaviours in different stages of development

The study highlights the dynamism of gene effects on brain function throughout the various stages of life such as adolescence or adulthood. “These results are important for understanding the onset of illness in conditions such as schizophrenia, depression or ADHD, which mostly occur at the threshold of adulthood. Our results also show that there are fundamental differences in the dopamine system between adolescents and adults, which we need to take into account in future treatments”, explains Pezawas.

There is no mention of the fact that rs165599 is an energy-dependent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is linked to energy-dependent fixation of an amino acid substitution. Instead, the change in the amino acid substitution is reported in the context of gene-centric theories of behavioral development.

Only serious scientists are likely to know how to link a functional SNP in COMT (a G-to-A base-pair substitution) to the fixation of a functional amino acid substitution. Only serious scientists may know that the energy-dependent G-to-A base pair substitution leads to a methionine (Met) valine (Val) substitution at codons 108/158 (COMT Val158Met).

Pseudoscientists may not know that carriers of the Met allele have been found to display a fourfold decrease in enzymatic activity compared to Val allele carriers. That fact has been linked to an increase of prefrontal dopamine activity and responses to different medications via enzymes and metabolism.

Prefrontal dopamine activity has been linked from the mechanism of reward to appropriate and inappropriate human behavior that sometimes change during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.

See also: microRNA prefrontal dopamine 

Some people may realize that the link from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to the COMT Val158Met substitution occurs at the time when veterans of the US military are most likely to serve overseas and return to commit suicide at a current rate of ~20 each day.

 

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